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Electricity, Magnetism and Electronics
Patents, Inventions and Discoveries A-Z


InventorInventionYearPatent No.
A
Affel Herman
Espenschied Lloyd
Coaxial Cable1929US1,835,031
Alexanderson ErnstRadio Frequency (RF) Generator1909US1,008,577
Alford AndrewInstrument Landing System (ILS)1951US2,682,050
Alfvén HannesMagnetohydrodynamics1970 
Ampère André-MarieAmpère's Law1820 
Armstrong Edwin HowardFM Radio1933US1,342,885
Armstrong Edwin HowardSuperheterodyne Receiver (Superhet)1918US1,342,885
Armstrong Edwin HowardRegenerative Circuit1914US1,113,149
Armstrong Edwin HowardArmstrong Oscillator (Tickler Oscillator)1914US1,113,149
Atalla JohnMOSFET - Metal-Oxide Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor1960 
B
Babbage CharlesComputer (Analytical Engine)1837 
Babbage Charles
     Almon Strowger
     Nikola Tesla
Logic Gate1837
1891
1898

US447,918
US613,809
Bacon Francis ThomasFuel Cell1932GB667,298
Bain Alexander
     James C Bryan
Earth Battery1841
1875

US160,152
Bain AlexanderFax Machine / Facsimile1842 
Baird John Logie
     Vladimir Kosma Zworykin
     Philo Taylor Farnsworth
Television1924
1923
1927

US2,141,059
US1,773,980
Bardeen John &
     William Shockley &
     Walter Brattain
Transistor (Bipolar Junction Transistor - BJT)1947US2,524,035
US2,569,347
Becquerel Alexandre EdmondPhotoelectric Effect1839 
Bednorz Johannes
     Karl Müller
High-Temperature Superconductivity1986 
Begun Semi JosephTape Recorder (magnetic)1934US2,048,487
US2,048,488
Bell Alexander GrahamTelephone1876US174,465
Berliner EmileMicrophone1877US224,573
Berliner EmileGramophone1887US372,786
Beverage HaroldBeverage Antenna1921 
Biot Jean Baptiste
     Felix Savart
Biot-Savart Law1820 
Bosch RobertMagneto Ignition1898 
Bosch Robert
     Nikola Tesla
     Richard Simms
Spark Plug1898
1898
1898
GB26907
US609,250
GB24859
Brattain Walter &
     John Bardeen &
     William Shockley
Transistor (Bipolar Junction Transistor - BJT)1947US2,524,035
US2,569,347
Braun Karl FerdinandCathode Ray Tube (CTR)1897 
Brugnatelli Luigi V.Electroplating1805 
C
China, AncientCompass350 AD 
Christie Samuel Hunter
     Sir Charles Wheatstone
Wheatstone Bridge1833
1843
 
Chrysler CorporationElectronic Ignition1970 
Claude GeorgesNeon Lamp1910US1,125,476
Colpitts Edwin H.Push-Pull Amplifier1912 
Conrad Frank
     Arthur Atwater Kent
Distributor1917
1920
US1,219,704
US1,474,970
Cooper MartinCell Phone1973US3,906,166
Coulomb Charles-Augustin deCoulomb's Law1787 
Coulomb Charles-Augustin de
     John Michell
Torsion Balance1777
1750
 
Crookes WilliamCrookes Tubec1875 
Curie PierreCurie's Law1895 
Curie PierreFerromagnetism1895 
Curie PierreParamagnetism1895 
Curie Pierre
     Jacques Curie
Piezoelectricity 1880 
D
Daniell John FredericDaniell (Daniel) Cell1836 
Darlington Sidney (Bell Laboratories)Darlington Pair1953US2,663,806
d'Arsonval Jacques
     Paul Marie Oudin
Oudin Coil1898
1898
 
Davenport ThomasElectric Car1833US132
Davy HumphryDavy Lamp1915 
Department of Defense (DOD)Global Positioning System (GPS)1960s 
E
Edison Thomas AlvaFuse Block1885US438,305
Edison Thomas AlvaIncandescent Light Bulb1879US223,898
Edison Thomas AlvaPhonograph1877US200,521
Edison Thomas AlvaElectric Distribution System1882US266,793
Edison Thomas Alva
     David Edward Hughes
Carbon Microphone1877
1878
 
Edison Thomas AlvaNickel-Iron (Ni-I) Battery1901 
Einstein AlbertSpecial Relativity for Beginners
Special Relativity
1905 
Esaki Leo (Sony)Tunnel Diode (Esaki)1958US4,198,644
Ewing James Alfred
     Charles Proteus Steinmetz
Hysteresis1890
1891
 
F
Faraday MichaelDiamagnetism1845 
Faraday MichaelElectric Motor1821 
Faraday Michael
     Hippolyte Pixii
Electrical Generator (Dynamo)1832
1832
 
Faraday MichaelElectrolysis1832 
Faraday MichaelElectromagnetic Induction (Faraday's Law)1831 
Faraday MichaelFaraday Cage1836 
Faraday MichaelFaraday Effect1845 
Faraday MichaelInductor (Induction Coil)1831 
Farnsworth Philo Taylor
     Robert Hirsch
Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor1966
1970
US3,258,402
US3,530,036
Farnsworth Philo Taylor
     Vladimir Kosma Zworykin
     John Logie Baird
Television1927
1923
1924
US1,773,980
US2,141,059
Fergason JamesLiquid Crystal Display (LCD)1970US3,731,986
Fessenden ReginaldFessenden Submarine Oscillator1914 
Fessenden ReginaldHeterodyne Principle1906 
Fleming John AmbroseDiode1904US803,684
GB24,805
Forest Lee DeVacuum Tube (Audion, Triode)1906US879,532
Franklin BenjaminLightning Rod1752 
Frohman DovEPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)1971 
G
Galilei Galileo
     Evangelista Torricelli
     Blaise Pascal
Vacuum1594
1643
1647
 
Galvani LuigiBioelectricity / Bioelectrogenesis1780s 
Galvani LuigiGalvanic Cell1780 
Galvin Paul
     William Powell Lear
Car Radio1929
1930

US1,944,139
Gauss Johann Carl FriedrichGauss's Law1867 
Geiger Hans (Johannes Wilhelm) &
Walther Müller (Mueller)
Geiger Counter Tube1908 
Geissler HeinrichGeissler Tube1857 
General Electric (GE)Compactron1961 
General Electric (GE)Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)1958 
General Electric (GE)Triac (TRIode for Alternating Current)1960s 
Germer Edmund &
     Friedrich Meyer &
     Hans J. Spanner
Fluorescent Lamp1926US2,182,732
Goldmark Peter
     Alfred Schroeder
Color Television1940
1947
 
Graaff Robert Jemison Van deVan de Graaf Generator1929US1,991,236
Greece, AncientMagnet (Lodestones)600 BC 
Gross AlCitizens' Band Radio (CB)1948 
Gross AlPager1949 
Gross Al
     Henryk Magnuski
Walkie Talkie1938
1940
 
H
Hall EdwinHall Effect1879 
Hansen William &
     Russell Varian &
     Sigurd Varian
Klystron Tube1937
1937
1937
 
Hashimoto KazuoDigital TAD (Telephone Answering Device)1984US4,616,110
Henry JosephRelay1835 
Hewlett William R.Variable Frequency Oscillation Generator1942US2,268,872
Hirsch Robert
     Philo Taylor Farnsworth
Farnsworth-Hirsch Fusor1970
1966
US3,530,036
US3,258,402
Hornbeck Larry
     William E. Nelson
Digital Light Processing (DLP)1987US4,710,732
US4,662,746
Hornbeck Larry
     William E. Nelson
Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)1987 
Huelsmeyer ChristianRadar (RAdio Detection and Ranging)1904US810,150
Hughes David Edward
     Thomas Edison
Carbon Microphone1878
1877
 
I
IntelCPU (Central Processing Unit) - PC (8080)1974 
J
Jacobi Moritz vonMaximum Power Theorem1839 
Joule James PrescottMagnetostriction1842 
Joule James PrescottJoule's Law1840 
K
Kent Arthur Atwater
     Frank Conrad
Distributor1917
1920
US1,219,704
US1,474,970
Kettering CharlesIgnition System1911US1,150,523
Kilby Jack
     Robert Noyce
Integrated Circuit (Microchip)1961
1961
US3,138,743
US2,981,877
Kirchhoff GustavKirchhoff's Laws1845 
Kleist Ewald Georg vonCapacitor1745 
Koch Richard C. (Industrial Development Engineering Associates)Transistor Radio1955US2,892,931
KodakOrganic Light-Emitting Diode (OLED)1980US4,356,429
L
Langevin PaulCrystal Oscillator1917FR505,703
Lavoisier AntoineSilicon1787 
Lear William Powell
     Paul Galvin
Car Radio1930
1929
US1,944,139
Lenz Heinrich Friedrich EmilLenz's Law1834 
Lilienfeld Julius EdgarElectrolytic Capacitor1928US2,013,564
Lilienfeld Julius EdgarFET - Field Effect Transistor1928US1,745,175
Lodge Oliver Joseph
     Ernst Siemens
Loudspeaker1898
1877
GB4685
Ger2355
GB9712
Lodge Oliver JosephMonopole Antenna1898 
Lodge Oliver JosephBiconical Antenna1898US609,154
Lorentz Hendrik AntoonLorentz Force Law  
M
Magnuski Henryk
     Al Gross
Walkie Talkie1940
1938
 
Marconi GuglielmoRadio1901GB12039
GB7777
US763,772
Maxwell James ClerkConservation of Electric Charge1865  
Maxwell James ClerkDisplacement Current1865 
Maxwell James ClerkElectromagnetism1865 
Maxwell James ClerkMaxwell's Equations1865 
Maxwell James ClerkRadio Waves (RF)1865 
Mead CarverVery Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI)1969 
Meissner Walter
     Robert Ochsenfeld
Meissner Effect1933 
Michell John
     Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
Torsion Balance1750
1777
 
Millikan RobertElectron Charge (Oil-Drop Experiment)1909 
Morse SamuelTelegraph1838US1,647
Morse SamuelMorse Code1840US1,647
Müller Karl
     Johannes Bednorz
High-Temperature Superconductivity1986 
Müller WillyAnswering Machine1935US2,816,167
Musschenbroek Pieter vanLeyden Jar1746 
N
NASADigital Camera1960s 
Nelson William E.
     Larry Hornbeck
Digital Light Processing (DLP)1987US4,710,732
US4,662,746
Nelson William E.
     Larry Hornbeck
Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)1987 
Noyce Robert
     Jack Kilby
Integrated Circuit (Microchip)1961
1961
US3,138,743
US2,981,877
O
Oersted (Ørsted) Hans ChristianElectromagnetic / Magnetic Field1820 
Oersted (Ørsted) Hans ChristianSturgeon's Galvanometer1820 
Ohl Russell S.Solar Cell (Silicon)1941US2,402,662
Ohl Russell S.Semiconductor1940 
Ohm Georg SimonOhm's Law1827 
Onnes Heike KamerlinghSuperconductivity1911 
Ott JohnFull Spectrum Lighting1950sUS4,091,441
Oudin Paul Marie
     Jacques d'Arsonval
Oudin Coil1898
1898
 
P
Pascal Blaise
     Galileo Galilei
     Evangelista Torricelli
Vacuum1647
1594
1643
 
Peltier Jean
     Thomas Johann Seebeck
Thermoelectricity1834
1821
 
PhilipsCassette Tape1962 
Philips, Sony, Toshiba, Time-Warner, Matsushita Electric, Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, JVC, IBMDVD (Digital Video Disc)1995 
Pickard Greenleaf WhittierCrystal Radio Receiver1900US836,531
Plücker JuliusCathode Rays1859 
Porsche FerdinandHybrid Vehicle1899 
Poulsen ValdemarTelegraphone1898US661,619
R
RCA / SonyWalkman1979 
Reber GroteRadio Telescope1937 
Roengten WilhelmX-ray Tube1895 
Ruben SamuelThermistor1930US2,021,49
Russell James T.Compact Disc (CD)1965 
S
Savart Felix
     Jean Baptiste Biot
Biot-Savart Law1820 
Schmitt Otto HerbertDifferential Amplifier1937Never Patented
Schottky Walter H.Schottky Diode1938 
Schroeder Alfred
     Peter Goldmark
Color Television1940
1947
 
Schweigger Johann S.Galvanometer1822 
Seebeck Thomas Johann
     Jean Peltier
Thermoelectricity1821
1834
 
Shereshaw Ben
     Ray Arden
Glow Plug1946 
Shockley William
     G. C. Dacey & I. M. Ross
JFET - Junction Field-Effect Transistor1952
1953
 
Shockley William &
     John Bardeen &
     Walter Brattain
Transistor (Bipolar Junction Transistor - BJT)1947US2,524,035
US2,569,347
Siemens Ernst
     Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge
Loudspeaker1877
1898
GB4685
Ger2355
GB9712
Simms Richard
     Nikola Tesla
     Robert Bosch
Spark Plug1898
1898
1898
GB24859
US609,250
GB26907
Soljačić MarinWiTricity2007 
SonyVideo Cassette Recorder (VCR)1971 
Spencer Percy LaBaronMicrowave Oven1945US2,495,429
Staite William EdwardsArc Lamp1834 
Stanley WilliamTransformer1886US349,611
Steinmetz Charles ProteusAlternating Current Calculations1897 
Steinmetz Charles Proteus
     James Alfred Ewing
Hysteresis1891
1890
 
Strowger Almon
     Charles Babbage
     Nikola Tesla
Logic Gate1891
1837
1898
US447,918

US613,809
Strowger AlmonTelephone Switching System (Telephone Exchange)1889US447,918
Sturgeon WilliamElectromagnet1825 
T
Tesla NikolaIgnition Coil1898US609,250
Tesla Nikola
     Richard Simms
     Robert Bosch
Spark Plug1898
1898
1898
US609,250
GB24859
GB26907
Tesla NikolaTesla Coil1891US454,622
US514,168
Tesla NikolaCarbon Button Lamp1886US335,786
Tesla NikolaAlternator1891US447,921
Tesla NikolaMechanical Oscillator1894US514,169
Tesla Nikola
     Charles Babbage
     Almon Strowger
Logic Gate1898
1837
1891
US613,809

US447,918
Nikola Tesla
Zenith
Robert Adler
Remote Control1898
1950
1956
US613,809

US2,817,025
Thales of MiletusElectric Charge600 BC 
Thales of MiletusElectric Field600 BC 
Thales of MiletusTriboelectric Effect600 BC 
TheophrastusPyroelectricity314 BC 
Thomson Joseph John (J.J.)Electron1897 
Thompson William (Lord Kelvin)Current Balance1894GB15,034
Thompson William (Lord Kelvin)Mirror Galvanometer (Reflecting Galvanometer)1858GB329
Thompson William (Lord Kelvin)Quadrant Electrometer1853 
Thomson William (Lord Kelvin)Strain Gauge1856 
Torricelli Evangelista
     Galileo Galilei
     Blaise Pascal
Vacuum1643
1594
1647
 
U
Uda ShintaroYagi-Uda Antenna1926 
V
Varian Russell &
     Sigurd Varian &
     William Hansen
Klystron Tube1937
1937
1937
 
Varian Sigurd &
     Russell Varian &
     William Hansen
Klystron Tube1937
1937
1937
 
Volta AlessandroBattery (Voltaic Pile)1800 
Volta AlessandroElectrophorus1775 
W
Wanlass Frank (Fairchild Semiconductor)CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)1963US3,356,858
Wheatstone Sir CharlesPotentiometer (Rheostat)1840 
Wheatstone Sir Charles
     Samuel Hunter Christie
Wheatstone Bridge1843
1833
 
Z
Zener Clarence MelvinZener Diode1915 
ZenithRemote Control (TV)1950 
Zuse KonradCPU (Central Processing Unit) - Relay1941 
Zworykin Vladimir Kosma
     John Logie Baird
     Philo Taylor Farnsworth
Television1923
1924
1927
US2,141,059

US1,773,980
Zworykin Vladimir KosmaKinescope1929 
Zworykin Vladimir KosmaIconoscope1923US2,141,059


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