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InventionInventorYearPatent No.
A
Alternating Current CalculationsCharles Proteus Steinmetz1897 
AlternatorNikola Tesla1891US447,921
Ampère's LawAndré-Marie Ampère1820 
Answering MachineWilly Müller1935US2,816,167
Arc LampWilliam Edwards Staite1834 
B
Battery (Voltaic Pile)Alessandro Volta1800 
Beverage AntennaHarold Beverage1921 
Biconical AntennaOliver Lodge1898US609,154
Bioelectricity/BioelectrogenesisLuigi Galvani1780s 
Biot-Savart LawJean Baptiste Biot
Felix Savart
1820 
C
CapacitorEwald Georg von Kleist1745 
Car RadioPaul Galvin
William Powell Lear
1929
1930

US1,944,139
Cassette TapePhilips Company1962 
Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)Karl Ferdinand Braun1897 
Cathode RaysJulius Plücker1859 
Cell PhoneMartin Cooper1973US3,906,166
Citizens' Band Radio (CB)Al Gross1948 
CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor)Frank Wanlass (Fairchild Semiconductor)1963US3,356,858
Coaxial CableHerman Affel
Lloyd Espenschied
1929US1,835,031
Color TelevisionPeter Goldmark
Alfred Schroeder
1940
1947
 
CompactronGeneral Electric (GE)1961 
Compact Disc (CD)James T. Russell1965 
CompassChina
350 AD 
Computer (Analytical Engine)Charles Babbage1837 
Conservation of Electric ChargeJames Clerk Maxwell1865  
Coulomb's LawCharles-Augustin de Coulomb1787 
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - RelayKonrad Zuse1941 
CPU (Central Processing Unit) - PCIntel (8080)1974 
Crookes TubeWilliam Crookesc1875 
Crystal OscillatorPaul Langevin1917FR505,703
Crystal Radio ReceiverGreenleaf Whittier Pickard1900US836,531
Curie's LawPierre Curie1895 
D
Daniell (Daniel) CellJohn Frederic Daniell1836 
Darlington PairSidney Darlington (Bell Laboratories)1953US2,663,806
DiamagnetismMichael Faraday1845 
Differential AmplifierOtto Herbert Schmitt1937Never Patented
Digital CameraNASA1960s 
Digital Micromirror Device (DMD)Larry Hornbeck
William E. Nelson
1987 
Digital TAD (Telephone Answering Device)Kazuo Hashimoto1984US4,616,110
DiodeJohn Ambrose Fleming1904US803,684
GB24,805
Displacement CurrentJames Clerk Maxwell1865 
DistributorFrank Conrad
Arthur Atwater Kent
1917
1920
US1,219,704
US1,474,970
Digital Light Processing (DLP)Larry Hornbeck
William E. Nelson
1987US4,710,732
US4,662,746
DVD (Digital Video Disc)Philips, Sony, Toshiba, Time-Warner, Matsushita Electric, Hitachi, Mitsubishi Electric, Pioneer, Thomson, JVC, IBM1995 
E
Electric CarThomas Davenport1833US132
Electric ChargeThales of Miletus600 BC 
Electric Distribution SystemThomas Alva Edison1882US266,793
Electric FieldThales of Miletus600 BC 
Electric MotorMichael Faraday1821 
Electrical Generator (Dynamo)Michael Faraday
Hippolyte Pixii
1832
1832
 
Electric GuitarLloyd Loar1923 
ElectrolysisMichael Faraday1832 
Electrolytic CapacitorJulius Edgar Lilienfeld1928US2,013,564
ElectromagnetWilliam Sturgeon1825 
Electromagnetic / Magnetic FieldHans Christian Oersted1820 
Electromagnetic Induction (Faraday's Law)Michael Faraday1831 
ElectromagnetismJames Clerk Maxwell1865 
ElectronJoseph John (J.J.) Thomson1897 
Electronic IgnitionChrysler Corporation1970 
Electron Charge (Oil-Drop Experiment)Robert Millikan1909 
Electron GunKarl Ferdinand Braun1897 
ElectroplatingLuigi V. Brugnatelli1805 
EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory)Dov Frohman (Intel)1971 
F
Faraday CageMichael Faraday1836 
Fax Machine / FacsimileAlexander Bain1842 
Faraday EffectMichael Faraday1845 
FerromagnetismPierre Curie1895 
FET - Field Effect TransistorJulius Edgar Lilienfeld1928US1,745,175
Filter   
Fluorescent LampEdmund Germer &
Friedrich Meyer &
Hans J. Spanner
1926US2,182,732
FM RadioEdwin Howard Armstrong1933US1,342,885
Fuel CellFrancis Thomas Bacon1932GB667,298
Full Spectrum LightingJohn Ott1950sUS4,091,441
G
Galvanic CellLuigi Galvani1780 
GalvanometerJohann S. Schweigger1822 
Gauss's LawJohann Carl Friedrich Gauss1867 
Geiger Counter TubeHans (Johannes Wilhelm) Geiger &
Walther Müller (Mueller)
1908 
Geissler TubeHeinrich Geissler1857 
Global Positioning System (GPS)U.S. Department of Defense (DOD)1960s 
Glow PlugBen Shereshaw
Ray Arden
1946 
H
Hall EffectEdwin Hall1879 
High-Temperature SuperconductivityJohannes Bednorz
Karl Müller
1986 
Hybrid VehicleFerdinand Porsche1899 
HysteresisJames Alfred Ewing
Charles Proteus Steinmetz
1890
1891
 
I
Ignition CoilNikola Tesla1898US609,250
Ignition SystemCharles Kettering1911US1,150,523
Incandescent Light BulbThomas Alva Edison1879US223,898
Inductor (Induction Coil)Michael Faraday1831 
Instrument Landing System (ILS)Andrew Alford1951US2,682,050
Integrated Circuit (Microchip)Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce
1961
1961
US3,138,743
US2,981,877
J
Joule's LawJames Prescott Joule1840 
K
Kirchhoff's LawsGustav Kirchhoff1845 
Klystron TubeWilliam Hansen&
Russell Varian &
Sigurd Varian
1937
1937
1937
US2,269,456
L
Lenz's LawHeinrich Friedrich Emil Lenz1834 
Leyden JarPieter van Musschenbroek1746 
Lightning RodBenjamin Franklin1752 
Liquid Crystal Display (LCD)James Fergason1970US3,731,986
Logic GateCharles Babbage
Almon Strowger
Nikola Tesla
1837
1891
1898

US447,918
US613,809
Lorentz Force LawHendrik Antoon Lorentz  
LoudspeakerErnst Siemens
Sir Oliver Joseph Lodge
1877
1898
GB4685
Ger2355
GB9712
M
Magnet (Lodestones)Ancient Greece600 BC 
Magneto IgnitionRobert Bosch1898 
MagnetohydrodynamicsHannes Alfvén1970 
MagnetostrictionJames Prescott Joule1842 
Maximum Power TheoremMoritz von Jacobi1839 
Maxwell's EquationsJames Clerk Maxwell1865 
Meissner EffectWalter Meissner
Robert Ochsenfeld
1933 
MicrophoneEmile Berliner1877US224,573
Microwave OvenPercy LaBaron Spencer1945US2,495,429
Morse CodeSamuel Morse1840US1,647
N
Neon LampGeorges Claude1910US1,125,476
O
Ohm's LawGeorg Simon Ohm1827 
Operational Amplifier   
Oudin CoilPaul Marie Oudin
Jacques d'Arsonval
1898
1898
 
P
PagerAl Gross1949 
ParamagnetismPierre Curie1895 
PhonographThomas Alva Edison1877US200,521
Photoelectric EffectAlexandre Edmond Becquerel1839 
Photoresistor   
Photovoltaic Cell (Solar Cell)Russell Ohl1946US2,402,662
PiezoelectricityPierre Curie
Jacques Curie
1880 
Potentiometer (Rheostat)Sir Charles Wheatstone1840 
Push-Pull AmplifierEdwin H. Colpitts1912 
PyroelectricityTheophrastus314 BC 
R
Radar (RAdio Detection and Ranging)Christian Huelsmeyer1904US810,150
RadioGuglielmo Marconi1901GB12039
GB7777
US763,772
Radio Frequency (RF) GeneratorErnst Alexanderson1909US1,008,577
Radio TelescopeGrote Reber1937 
Radio Waves (RF)James Clerk Maxwell1865 
Regenerative CircuitEdwin Armstrong1914US1,113,149
RelayJoseph Henry1835 
Remote ControlNikola Tesla
Zenith
Robert Adler
1898
1950
1956
US613,809

US2,817,025
ResistanceGeorg Simon Ohm1827 
Resistor   
S
Schottky DiodeWalter H. Schottky1938 
SemiconductorRussell S. Ohl1940 
SiliconAntoine Lavoisier1787 
Silicon-Controlled Rectifier (SCR)General Electric (GE)1958 
SI Electricity/Magnetism Units11th General Conference on Weights and Measures1960 
Solar Cell (Silicon)Russell Ohl1941US2,402,662
Spark PlugNikola Tesla
Richard Simms
Robert Bosch
1898
1898
1898
US609,250
GB24859
GB26907
Special Relativity for Beginners
Special Relativity
Albert Einstein1905 
SuperconductivityHeike Kamerlingh Onnes1911 
T
Tape Recorder (magnetic)Semi Joseph Begun1934US2,048,487
US2,048,488
TelegraphSamuel Morse1838US1,647
TelephoneAlexander Graham Bell1876US174,465
Telephone Switching System (Telephone Exchange)Almon Strowger1889US447,918
TelevisionVladimir Kosma Zworykin
John Logie Baird
Philo Taylor Farnsworth
1923
1924
1927
US2,141,059

US1,773,980
Tesla CoilNikola Tesla1891US454,622
US514,168
ThermistorSamuel Ruben1930US2,021,491
ThermoelectricityThomas Johann Seebeck
Jean Peltier
1821
1834
 
Torsion BalanceJohn Michell
Charles-Augustin de Coulomb
1750
1777
 
Touch Screen TechnologySam Hurst1974US3,662,105
US3,798,370
Transistor (Bipolar Junction Transistor - BJT)John Bardeen &
William Shockley &
Walter Brattain
1947US2,524,035
US2,569,347
Transistor RadioRichard C. Koch (Industrial Development Engineering Associates)1955US2,892,931
TransformerWilliam Stanley1886US349,611
Triac (TRIode for Alternating Current)General Electric (GE)1960s 
Triboelectric EffectThales of Miletus600 BC 
Tunnel Diode (Esaki)Leo Esaki (Sony)1958US4,198,644
V
VacuumGalileo Galilei
Evangelista Torricelli
Blaise Pascal
1594
1643
1647
 
Vacuum Tube (Audion, Triode)Lee De Forest1906US879,532
Van de Graaf GeneratorRobert Jemison Van de Graaff1929US1,991,236
Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI)Carver Mead1969 
Video Cassette Recorder (VCR)Sony1971 
W
Walkie TalkieAl Gross
Henryk Magnuski
1938
1940
 
WalkmanRCA / Sony1979 
Wheatstone BridgeSamuel Hunter Christie
Sir Charles Wheatstone
1833
1843
 
WiTricityMarin Soljačić2007 
X
X-raysWilhelm Conrad Rontgen1895 
X-ray TubeWilhelm Roengten1895 
Y
Yagi-Uda AntennaShintaro Uda1926 
Z
Zener DiodeClarence Melvin Zener1915 


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